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    Title: 《四書大全》學術系譜的「歧出」與「統合」──由雙峰、北山至新安之義理考察(第2年)
    Authors: 陳逢源
    Contributors: 中文系
    Keywords: 朱熹;四書大全;雙峰;北山;新安
    Zhu Xi;Encyclopaedia of the Four Books;Shuang-Fong;BeiShan;Xin-An
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-05-17 10:11:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 明代科舉定制乃是四書「經典化」發展最重要關鍵,尤其明成祖敕撰《四書大全》,挾其皇權威勢,一改士人成學方式,四書先於五經,成為儒學核心所在。筆者覈查文獻,梳理細節,檢討纂修情形,了解《四書大全》價值,進而及於內容分析,觀察徵引情形,可以歸納出三大主軸:一是朱熹傳衍系統,包括門人以及所傳弟子,內容是對於朱熹詮釋的整理與確認;二是彼此分立,各自詮釋,內容包括雙峰、北山等不同系統的分歧說法;三是新安諸儒,以鄉賢前輩號召,主要是標舉回歸朱熹的辨析整合工作。由傳延而至分歧,又由分歧而至統整,三者相互採借,詮釋交互影響,《四書大全》一方面從新安一系承繼元儒注解四書的成果,另一方面也回應新安一系學人與雙峰、北山兩系爭奪詮釋朱學宗主地位的主張,紛擾當中,得見由學脈、宗派而及於宗族情懷。朱學由黃榦、陳淳等弟子所傳,到各家分立,又至新安堅持宗奉「正印」,宋元之際,學脈日分,學術因此傳布,也因此歧出,捍衛朱熹學術的信念,從元儒紛雜經說,最終回歸於義理核心,宗奉朱注,建構詮釋體系,乃是「官學」成立關鍵,也是《四書大全》重構脈絡的主要方向,性理詮釋成為明儒理解朱學的基礎,此是前人研究未及深入之處,也是朱學發展失落的環節,元儒著作多數亡佚,線索模糊,於今重加整理,比對其中,期以有更清楚的觀察。
    The establishment of official examination in the Ming Dynasty is the key of canonization of the Four Books. Yongle Emperor, Chengzu of Ming Dynasty, decreed to compile Encyclopaedia of the Four Books. With the imperial authority, scholars changed their way of pursuing studies when the Four Books transcended the Five Classics and became the core of the Confucian Philosophy. Through
    investigating the texts, putting them in order, and reviewing the process of compiling, the value of
    Encyclopaedia of the Four Books is revealed. According to the content and quotations, there are three main systems in this works. First, the system of Zhu Xi and his disciples, which is the combination and confirmation of Zhu' s interpretation. Second, different statements of different academic systems, for example, the systems of Shuang-Fong and Bei-Shan. Third, the scholars in Xin-An system, whose
    main work is reverting to Zhu’s own analysis. From inheritance to divergence, and then from divergence to coalescence, the three systems interacted with each other. Encyclopaedia of the Four Books inherited the achievement of Yuan scholars’ annotation in the Xin-An system, on one hand, and dealt with the argument between Xin-An system and the other two systems, Shuang-Fong and Bei-Shan, on the other hand. The complex relationship between different systems actually let us know the threads of schools, sects, and affections of clan. Huang Gan, Chen Chun, and other
    disciples of Zhu Xi had inherited Zhu’s study, which was separated into different schools later, and the scholars of
    Xin-An insisted on their legitimacy. In the connection between Song and Yuan, threads of schools have divided increasingly. The academic thought was not only diverged but also spread over. The persuasion of defending Zhu Xu’s study brought out the core of ordinance and the orthodox of Zhu’s own annotation, which became the key factor of official study and the main direction of reconstruction of
    the context of Encyclopaedia of the Four Books. In fact, the interpretation of mind and principle became the Ming scholars’ foundation of knowing Zhu’s study. Former scholars did not deeply research on the mind and principle, which was the absent part of the development of the Zhu’s
    study. Many works of Yuan scholars were lost, hence, the clues were vague. In this paper, I will collect and compare the texts, in order to give a clear explanation.
    Relation: MOST 103-2410-H-004-153-MY2
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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