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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 宗教研究所 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/109258
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    Title: 朝向國王害生的合理化:由經典至教史典範之轉移
    Towards the justification of King's killing : a shift of paradigm from canon to vaṃsa
    Authors: 吳芬錦
    Wu, Fen-Jin
    Contributors: 黃柏棋
    釋果鏡

    Huang, Pochi
    Shih, Guo-Jing

    吳芬錦
    Wu, Fen-Jin
    Keywords: 懺悔
    阿闍世王
    度多伽摩尼王
    <<沙門果經>>
    <<大史>>
    Confession
    Ajātaśatu
    Duṭṭhagāmaṇi
    Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ
    Mahāvaṃsa
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-05-01 11:24:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 殺一個人是殺人犯,殺成千上萬的人卻成為國王,當國王行使王權而害生並且與佛教倫理及普世價值衝突時,宗教師該如何協助王化解內心的不安與矛盾?如何合理化國王害生之爭議?本文主要以歷史、經典、比較與文獻考察等方式,探討由經典至教史國王害生合理化之轉變,及其轉變的原因。首先將討論罪的本質與罪意識的覺察,早期佛教之懺悔模式,如何經由懺悔處理罪業的問題,及懺悔、罪業與因果業報三者之間的關係。
    其次將以漢譯與巴利《沙門果經》為主,討論阿闍世王的懺悔模式,王因弒父而犯下五逆重罪,即使已向佛懺悔,自己仍會受到傷害。有關伽摩尼王的害生與悔過將以《大史》為主要研究文獻,討論國王為護教而殺害泰米爾人,王良知覺醒卻沒有真正懺悔,阿羅漢認為伽摩尼王仍可因善業而生天成為彌勒的弟子,未來將隨彌勒下生人間成佛,這樣的說法與佛教倫理觀念相牴觸,國王行善可不必為罪過付出代價,已違背佛教經典教義。國王害生合理化之轉變可能的原因如下:首先是外在政治經濟情勢的轉變,造成國王角色的改變,捍衛教法成為王的重責大任,而互利共生的政教關係使僧伽失去宗教領域的自主性,再加上《大史》本身特有的救贖史觀點,導致佛教於錫蘭在地化之後,教法延續與安住的重要性已超越經典核心教義,因而造成國王害生合理化有如此重大之轉變。
    總之,由經典至教史佛教懺悔觀念與內涵已有一些具體的轉變,佛教國王害生之合理化,在佛陀時期阿闍世王弒父之罪以懺悔及善業得重罪輕報,至伽摩尼王時則是因時空背景與大環境之改變,已轉變成因善業生天,成為未來佛的方式合理化國王害生之爭議。
    關鍵字:懺悔、阿闍世王、度多伽摩尼王、《沙門果經》、《大史》。
    To kill a person is murder, yet one may need to kill thousands of people to become a king. This study will discuss King Ajātaśatu and King Duṭṭhagāmaṇi in terms of conflict between kingship and Buddhist ethics. How can the controversial action of killing by kings be justified? This dissertation will apply historical, canonical, comparative, and literary methods to study the justification of killing by kings. First of all, it will discuss the question of guilt and the awareness of guilt, then the formula of confession in early Buddhism. How can repentance counteract evil deeds and what is the relationship among confession, karma, and the law of cause and effect?
    According to the Pāli Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ, King Ajātaśatu committed patricide and confessed his misdeed to the Buddha, but still experienced the unfortunate consequences of his actions. According to the Mahāvaṃsa, King Duṭṭhagāmaṇi killed many Tamils, but he did not repent earnestly. Reportedly, eight arahats thought he was innocent and would be reborn in heaven as the disciple of Maitreya. This explanation conflicts with Buddhist ethical principles and canonical doctrines. In the Mahāvaṃsa, the king does not have to pay for his evil deeds because his great merits cancel out his bad karma. How could the Buddhists claim such an contradictory doctrine? The political and economic environment during Ajātaśatu’s time was different from environment in Ceylon, including the role of kings: the major task of a king was to protect the sasāna. The relationship between the king and the saṅgha was one of mutual benefit and symbiotic relations. In the indigenized Buddhism of Ceylon, the continuity of the sasāna took precedence over canonical core doctrines in the case of kingship.
    Through the examples of King Ajātaśatu and Duṭṭhagāmaṇi, from canon to vaṃsa, the core value and ethical context of confession has been transformed dramatically; moreover, the justification of killing by kings has been changed through the power of confession to rebirth in the heaven.
    Key words: Confession, Ajātaśatu, Duṭṭhagāmaṇi, Sāmaññaphalasuttaṃ, Mahāvaṃsa
    Reference: 一、中文經典書籍
    (一)經典文獻
    《長阿含經》,CBETA, T01, no. 1。
    《起世因本經》,CBETA, T01, no. 25。
    《中阿含經》,CBETA, T01, no. 26。
    《輪王七寶經》,CBETA, T01, no. 38。
    《雜阿含經》,CBETA, T02, no. 99。
    《別譯雜阿含經》,CBETA, T02, no. 100。
    《增壹阿含經》,CBETA, T02, no. 125。
    《佛說興起行經》,CBETA, T04, no. 197。
    《大薩遮尼乾子所說經》,CBETA, T09, no. 272。
    《阿闍世王問五逆經》,CBETA, T14, no. 508。
    《阿闍世王授決經》,CBETA, T14, no. 509。
    《佛說阿闍世王經》,CBETA, T15, no. 626。
    《四分律》,CBETA, T22, no. 1428。
    《根本說一切有部毘奈耶》,CBETA, T23, no. 1442。
    《十誦律》,CBETA, T23, no.1435。
    《根本說一切有部毘奈耶》,CBETA, T23, no. 1442。
    《慈悲道場懺法》,CBETA,T45, no.1909。
    《大唐西域記》,CBETA, T51, no. 2087。
    《南海寄歸內法傳》,CBETA, T54, no. 2125。
    《四分律刪補隨機羯磨疏濟緣記》,CBETA, X41, no. 728// Z1:64 // R64。
    (二) 中文著作
    王蘭2005《斯里蘭卡的民族宗教與文化》,北京:昆侖出版社。
    平川彰2004《印度佛教史》,台北:商周出版。
    瓦.伊.科奇涅夫著,王蘭譯 1990《斯里蘭卡的民族歷史文化》,北京:中國社會科學出版社。
    保羅.里克爾著,翁紹軍譯1992《惡的象徵》,台北:桂冠圖書股份有限公司。
    柯志明2008《惡的詮釋學》,台北:五南圖書出版。
    查爾斯.埃利奧特 著,李榮熙 譯 1990《印度教與佛教史綱頁》第一卷,
     高雄:佛光出版社。
    韋伯 著,康特.簡惠美 譯 1993《宗教社會學》,台北:遠流出版社。
    菩提比丘 英文編譯,德雄比丘 中文主譯 2002 《沙門果經及其注疏》,嘉義:
     法雨道場。
    黃柏棋2009《從聖典到教史:巴利佛教的思想交涉》,台中:明目文化。
    雲井昭善 1997《パ一リ語佛教辞典》 東京:山喜房佛書林。
    渥德爾(A. K. Warder)著,王世安 譯,《印度佛教史》上,貴陽:貴州大學出版社。
    楊惠宇2005《彌勒信仰與輪王政治》,香港:珠海大學中國歷史研究所博士論文。
    廖肇亨2013〈導言(二)〉,李豐楙,廖肇亨主編《沉淪、懺悔與救度:中國文化的懺悔書寫》,台北:中研院文哲所。
    鄧偉仁2014〈不害與刑罰的兩難:早期佛教與婆羅門傳統中的聖王想像〉,《漢語佛學評論(第四輯)》,上海:上海古籍出版社。
    蔣忠新譯1986《摩奴法論》,北京:中國社會科學出版社。
    摩訶那摩等著,韓廷傑譯1996《大史–斯里蘭卡佛教史》(上),台北:佛光文化。
    韓廷傑1996《印度佛教史》,台北:文津出版社。
    韓延傑 2001《南傳上座部佛教概論》,台北:文津出版社。
    韓延傑 1996《島史》,台北:慧炬出版社。
    鐘文秀譯2011《薄伽梵歌(上)》,新北市:空庭書苑出版。
    釋大睿2000《天臺懺法之研究》,台北:法鼓文化。
    釋印順1993《華雨集二》,台北:正聞出版社。
    釋印順1981《初期大乘佛教之起源與開展》,台北:正聞出版社。
    釋聖嚴2000《戒律學綱要》,台北:法鼓文化。
    釋聖嚴著,莊國彬譯2008《智慧之劍》,台北:法鼓文化。
    二、外文著作
    (一) 巴利經典
    Carpenter, Estlin editor. 2001. The Dīgha-Nikaya Vol.3. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
    Davids, Rhys and Carpenter, Estlin editor. 1995. The Dīgha Nikāya Vol.1. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
    Oldenberg, Hermann editor. 1997. Vinaya Piṭkaṃ Vol I. The Mahāvagga. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
    Oldenberg, Hermann editor. 1997. Vinaya Piṭkaṃ Vol II. The Cullvagga. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
    Oldenberg, Hermann editor. 1993. Vinaya Piṭkaṃ Vol IV Pācittiya. Oxford: Pali Text Society.
    Geiger, Wilhelm editor. 1958. The Mahāvaṃsa. London: The Pali Text Society.
    (二) 經典英文譯本
    Walshe, Maurice translator. 1995. The Long Discourses of the Buddha-A Translation of Dīgha Nikāya. Somerville, Mass. : Wisdom Publications.
    Geiger, Wilhelm translator. 1912. The Mahāvaṃsa. UK: Oxford University Press.
    (三) 外文專書
    Chakravarti, Uma. 1987. The Social Dimensions of Early Buddhism. Delhi: Oxford University Presss
    Collins, Steven. 1998. Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gombrich, Richard. 1971. Precept and Practice, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Gombrich, Richard. 1988. Theravada Buddhism. London: Routledge&Kegan Paul.
    Gunawardana, R. A. L. H. 1979. Robe and Plough. Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
    Jaini, Padmanabh S. 1988.“Stages in the Bodhisattva Career of the Tathāgata Maitreya.”Maitreya, the Future Buddha. Edited by Alan Sponberg and Helen Hardacre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kemper, S. 1991. The Presence of the Past. Chronicles, Politics, and Culture in Sinhala Life. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
    Kitagawa, Joseph M. 1988.“The Many Faces of Maitreya.”Maitreya, the Future Buddha. Edited by Alan Sponberg and Helen Hardacre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nikam, N. A. and Mckeon, Richard editor and translator. 1959. The Edicts of Asoka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Obeysekere, Gananath. 1993. “Duṭṭhagāmaṇi and the Buddhist Conscience.”In Religion and Political Conflict in South Asia. Edited by Douglas Allen. Greenwood Publishing Group Reprinted. Delhi: Oxford University.
    Radich, Michael. 2011. How Ajātaśatu Was Reformed: The Domestication of “Ajase” and Stories in Buddhist History. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies of The International College for Postgraduate Buddhist Studies.
    Rahula ,Walpola 1956. The History of Buddhism in Ceylon. Colombo: M. D. Gunasena.
    Ricoeur, Paul 1969. The Symbolism of Evil. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Silva, K. M. De. 1981. A History of Sri Lanka. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Tambiah, S. 1976. World Conqueror and World Renouncer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tambiah, S. 1986. Sri Lanka. Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    Tambiah, S. 1992. Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics and Violence in Sri Lanka. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    Thapar, Romila. 1966. A History of India. England: Penguin Books.
    Tharpa, Romila. 2003. The Penguin History Early India from Origins to AD 1300. London: Penguin Books.
    Flood, Gavin. 1996. An Introduction to Hinduism. UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Ven. S. Dhammika English rendering. 1994. The Edicts of King Asoka. Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society.
    三、期刊論文
    (一) 中文期刊
    黃柏棋 2012 〈梵行為何必要: 論佛教興起時代之宗教倫理思想〉,《正觀》61,頁5-54。
    摩羅 2007 〈原罪意識與懺悔意識的起源及宗教學分析〉,《中國文化》2,頁51-60。
    (二) 日文期刊
    畑 昌利2012〈Pali仏典における阿闍世王〉,Journal of Pali and Buddhist
    Studies (26) pp. 15-40。
    畑 昌利2011〈初期仏典における懺悔の諸相〉,Journal of Pali and Buddhist
    Studies (25) pp.41-59。
    畑 昌利2010 〈Pali「沙門果経」と阿闍世王〉,Journal of Pali and Buddhist
    Studies (24) pp. 3-24。
    畑 昌利 2010〈傷ついた阿闍世王〉,《印度佛教學研究》59 (1) p. 209-214。
    (三) 英文期刊
    Attwood, Jayarava Michael. 2008.“Did King Ajātasattu Confess to Buddha, and did the Buddha Forgive Him?”Journal of Buddhist Ethics. pp. 278-307.
    DeVotta, Neil. 2011. &quot;Sri Lanka: From Turmoil to Dynasty&quot;. Journal of
    Democracy , 22(2):130-144.
    四、數位資料與參考網站
    羅因 2002 〈佛教布薩制度的研究〉,《儒佛會通暨文化哲學學術研討會論文集》第六屆(上) 頁389-406,台北:華梵大學哲學系。全文下載自佛學數位圖書館暨博物館網站http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw 2017.1.15。
    釋惠空〈懺悔析義〉,本文1999年發表於《佛學與人生學術研討會》,頁25-36,台中:逢甲大學人文社會學院出版。全文下載自 佛藏山慈光寺網站,http://www.fozang.org.tw/digest_1_1.htm 2013.7.10。
    印度學佛教學研究搜尋網站http://www.inbuds.net。
    Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS) http://quod.lib.umich.edu/b/bas/。
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    宗教研究所
    100156503
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100156503
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[宗教研究所] 學位論文

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