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    Title: 萬變不離其宗: 建立台灣華語中英語借字之機率感知語法
    Where variation vanishes : constructing the stochastic perception grammar for English loanwords in Taiwan Mandarin
    Authors: 呂明昌
    Lu, Mingchang
    Contributors: 蕭宇超
    Hsiao, Yuchao E.
    Lu, Mingchang
    Keywords: 借字調整
    Loanword adaptation
    Lexical variation
    Cue constraint
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2017-03-01 17:01:03 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 觀察台灣華語中英語借字的輔音調整,得以窺見一系列由感知顯著性之差異所誘發的借字調整傾向。此感知顯著性或許屬於該輔音本身之內在聲學特質,抑或源自於由該輔音所在之環境所提供之外部感知訊號。儘管存在著調整傾向,借入語言調整者針對調整策略之決定,例如元音加插或輔音刪除,卻幾乎沒有絕對之調整形態。這些調整能夠修正不合法的借出語言結構,使之遵守借入語言相對較為嚴格之音韻規範。本論文正視此借字調整所浮現之詞彙變異性,以結構性制約及訊號制約所構成的單一機率感知語法(stochastic perception grammar, SPG)將其形式化,而非視之為核心形式分析中之異常。此機制以機率優選理論(stochastic OT, Boersma 1997, 1998; Boersma and Hayes 2001)之制約覆蓋範圍及重疊等重要觀念為基礎,重新定義制約之互動:藉由各種變異值在二元變異及多元變異中發生機率之分配,設計出可計算制約排序值的數學運算方式。此單一化之SPG不僅臻於理論簡易性之目標,並具備優越性,可將借字音韻中由感知所驅使之調整形態,做出明確之量化預測。
    Consonant adaptation in Taiwan Mandarin (TM) loanwords from English reveals a series of tendencies that are majorly induced by degrees of perceptual salience pertaining either to the innate acoustic properties of the target consonant per se, or to external perceptual cues provided by the context where the consonant resides. Despite these inclinations, there is hardly any absoluteness in the L1 adapter’s determination of strategy, such as vowel insertion or consonant deletion, that works to repair the forbidden L2 structure to fit it into the relatively severe restrictions of the native phonotactics. Rather than treating it as exceptional to the core of formal analyses, this dissertation takes the lexical variation emerging from loanword adaptation seriously and couches it within a single stochastic perception grammar (SPG), of which the main ingredients are structural and cue constraints. This mechanism redefines constraint interaction through the key notions of constraint coverage and overlapping, designed in stochastic OT (Boersma 1997, 1998; Boersma and Hayes 2001), by providing mathematical operations that aim at figuring out the ranking values of constraints based on the percentage distribution of the variants’ occurrences in both binary and multiple variations. The unified SPG not simply achieves theoretical simplicity but excels in making specific quantitative prediction of the perceptually inspired adaptation patterns in loanword phonology.
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