The use of causal relations in narrations and expositions: a case study of Taiwan senior high school textbooks and high performance students' compositions
Lin, Yu Hsuan
Chang, Hsun Huei
Lin, Yu Hsuan
|上傳時間: ||2017-02-08 16:31:38 (UTC+8)|
而我們也發現在不同文體中的不同文章結構，因果關係使用的情形不同。在敘述文中，因果關係主要被使用於Complications和Resolutions中。在說明文中，因果關係則主要被使用於Arguments supported by evidence 和Summing up the position中。除此之外，本文亦發現在四類因果連接詞中，Reason和Result這兩類的因果連接詞最常被使用於敘述文和說明文中。
The purpose of the study is to investigate the variations of causal relations in narrations and expositions in Taiwan senior high school's English textbooks, and high performance students’compositions. Since causal relations are common in reading and writing, it is important for students to learn to use it. According to Lee (2003), causal relations are the most difficult logical relations for students to master. The present study wants to know how causal relations are introduced to learners in the narrations and expositions from textbooks. Besides, the present study also wants to know how students use causal relations in different genres of compositions.
In the study, three series of textbooks are selected for the examination. These three textbooks were chosen as they are commonly used textbooks in Taiwan senior high schools. The selected texts for examination are the texts of two genres: narration and exposition, for these two genres are frequently tested in College Entrance Exams. Moreover, the causal relations in narrations and expositions among the high-scoring essays in years of 2011 to 2016College Entrance Exams were examined as well.
The results showed that three series of textbooks in have no significant differences in the distributions of narrations and expositions. Besides, senior high school students expose more narrations but fewer expositions in the higher grades. Furthermore, the result revealed that genres do influence the uses of causal relations, for expositions in the textbooks applied more causal relations than the narrations in the textbooks.
Moreover, different usages among different text organizations in both narrations and expositions were found. In the text organizations of narrations, causal relations were mainly used in complications and resolutions.In the text organizations of expositions, causal relations were mainly used in Arguments supported by evidence and Summing up the position. The types of causal relations which are frequently used in textbooks were also found as well. The results showed that Reason and Result type of causal logical connectors were mainly used in both narrations and expositions.
Analyses of casual relations’sequences were conducted to clearly see the syntactic sequences, temporal sequences, and logical sequences of the sentences with causal relations. It was found that almost all the causal relations in the textbooks had the temporal sequences equaled to the logical sequences. Moreover, six usages of causal logical connectors were categorized and presented with example sentences.
Last but not least, through the analyses of causal relations in students’high-scoring essays, the result showed that high performance students used the similar amounts of causal relations in their compositions with the textbooks’ writers. The present study also categorizes the errors of misusing the causal relations into four problems.
It is hoped that this study can provide insights for the senior high school English teachers, textbook publishers, and students to follow.
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