所謂公民統治，係指具民主統治正當性之政治部門，統治軍事部門之政軍關係，對民主主義之政治體制而言，其乃必要之條件。因此，衡量公民統治確立之程度，必須探討兩項民主的正當要素：代表性與正當性。前者選民透過代表性來控制政治部門，後者政治部門透過問責制度對選民進行解釋或勸說。根據這兩個因素，在冷戰・五五體制時期，日本之公民統治，在高度依賴官僚體系與軍事部門的情況下，只能評價為相當脆弱。相對於此，經歷冷戰・五五體制之崩壞，以及接續之政黨政治・政治對立構造・選舉制度變化後，日本已較具備文民統治之條件。超越以往的意識形態對立，關於戰略安全形成廣泛、中庸之共識，可謂是鞏固公民統治，乃至於民主主義之條件。然而，近年來的自民黨政府，尤其是第二任安倍政權，卻反其道而行。 Civilian control is a type of politico-military relations of modern states in which the political sector controls the military sector. It is a necessary condition for the democratic political system. Hence, the degree of actual civilian control should be evaluated based on two factors of the democratic legitimacy: representativeness and accountability, where representativeness means the control of the political sector by the voters and accountability means the responsible attempts by the political sector to explain and persuade the voters. Based on these two factors, the civilian control of Japan under the Cold War and the 1955 System was heavily based on the bureaucratic control of the military, and thus evaluated as quite weak. On the other hand, the conditions for civilian control have been remarkably improved in contemporary Japan after the collapse of both the Cold War and the 1955 System, and ensuing changes in the party, electoral systems, and politicalideological transformations. To establish civilian control and even strengthen the democracy, it is an important task for Japan to build a more centrist consensus, beyond the ideological standoff, on security issues that can be supported by a broader spectrum of voters. However, recent LDP and its governments (especially under Shinzo Abe) seem to be going toward the opposite direction.