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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 宗教研究所 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/104626
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/104626


    Title: 多重共構的藏傳淨土:以蓮花生大士銅色吉祥山為例
    Multiple Constructions of a Tibetan Pureland: A Focus on Padmasambhava's Copper-Coloured Mountain
    Authors: 吳品達
    Wu, Pin Ta
    Contributors: 劉國威
    李玉珍

    吳品達
    Wu, Pin Ta
    Keywords: 銅色吉祥山
    桑東巴日
    蓮花生大士
    藏傳淨土
    伏藏
    段義孚
    地方
    空間
    The Copper-Coloured Mountain
    Zangdok Palri
    Padmasambhava
    Tibetan Purelands
    Terma
    Tuan, Yi-Fu
    place
    space
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-12-07 10:46:44 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 銅色吉祥山 (Copper-Coloured Mountain),藏音「桑東巴日」(Zangdok Palri) (zangs mdog dpal ri),為寧瑪派傳承祖師-蓮花生大士的藏傳淨土,並且是專屬西藏所獨有且唯一以「聖山」形相方式呈現,將聖山與淨土結合,可以視為「聖山化的淨土信仰」。

    此鄔金淨土與其他諸佛淨土不同之處有二:首先是,銅色吉祥山淨土,不在遙遠的他方虛空處,而是存在於世間,眾生所居住的南瞻部洲。繼之,於蓮師傳記所述,銅色吉祥山淨土的前身,本為食人羅剎居住的恐怖之地。蓮花生大士將羅剎國,轉化成清淨的圓滿淨土,即為蓮師悲智雙運的展現、殊勝伏藏寶地,更是西藏宗教傳統中獨有的純藏式淨土,寧瑪派傳承伏藏師與修行者,欲意通往的神聖究竟皈依處。

    銅色吉祥山,以地行剎土的形式化現。山形,狀如倒立的心臟。山的底部,深達地底龍王的國界;山的半山腰處,是空行剎土;山的頂峰,直入梵天之境。整座銅色吉祥山,受藍色大海與羅剎諸島所圍繞。山中虹光如雲,廣大的平原處,矗有一座由四種珍寶,象徵法、報、化三身圓成的三層式蓮花光越量宮殿,圍繞各式神尊護法與空行聖眾蓮師,共護擁於虹光界的本尊-蓮花生大士。

    本論文以銅色吉祥山淨土為母題,從地方/空間的視角,研究伏藏傳記的文字傳統、不丹壁畫與西藏唐卡的圖像傳統,以及香港舉辦銅色吉祥山法會的儀式實踐傳統,瞭解銅色吉祥山淨土,透過三大傳統多重共構而成的藏傳淨土。文字、圖像與儀式三大傳統,於第三、四、五章進行探討,主要從六個面向探討與延伸:其一,在佛教經典中,展現極致象徵的視角、多方詮釋的空間意涵。其二,於大伏藏師淨觀之相,是自然地景與神聖空間,動態交融而入的掘藏寶地,實得蓮師與空行殊勝法教。其三,圖像傳統中,瞭解重要構圖元素、宮殿本尊的多種配置、蓮師形態與法相的殊異。

    其四,在跨圖像研究中,以蓮師八神變相為主題,過度至金剛舞儀式時,兩傳統呈現動態空間的交應。其五,伏藏師秋吉林巴淨觀之相為例,比較蓮師淨土諸相,如何共譯於傳記與圖像。最後,從香港蓮師法會田調,記錄銅色吉祥山如何透過儀式實踐,具象地再現出蓮師立體壇城,分析儀式中聖俗地方與空間的再造與轉化。

    結論部分,以七個觀點總結,瞭解並再次確認:銅色吉祥山淨土,是三大傳統多重共構而成的藏傳淨土。以此基礎,更進一步以「地方」與「空間」的視角,帶出三個基本的原則:多重性、互融性與創造性。證實筆者的假設:銅色吉祥山淨土,不只是多重共構的藏傳淨土,更是神聖地方/空間並存與交融的多重共構體。
    進一步歸納全文,分析銅色吉祥山淨土,其存在與化現的真實所在處。最末持以結論為研究立基,展望未來學術研究,繼續深入蓮師淨土,亦延伸至其他藏傳淨土的探究與比較。

    透過三大藏傳佛教重要的傳統中的技藝表現,了解這三大傳統支撐、延續並強化蓮師信仰的傳統,同時也共構出專屬於西藏獨有的蓮花生大士銅色吉祥山淨土的大傳統,即是自成一個聖山空間化淨土信仰的傳統特色。銅色吉祥山作為自身傳統的中心點,一處無法被真實且具體定位的所在處,讓蓮師淨土成為普現於世間每處的人間淨土,是蓮花生大士最善巧方便與智慧的莊嚴相。
    The Copper-Coloured Mountain, pronounced as Zangdok Palri (zangs mdog dpal ri) in Tibet, is the Tibetan pureland of Padmasambhava who is the founder of the Nyingma Tradition. The Copper-Coloured Mountain pureland manifests itself in the form of a mountain with the combination of sacred mountain and pureland which can be seen as “a sacred mountainized belief of pureland.”

    The pureland of Copper-Coloured Mountain is to be distinguished from other purelands of Buddha for two reasons: Firstly, this pureland is not remotely located in a realm of void space apart from our world. It existed in the Jambudvīpa inhabited with all beings instead. Secondly, according to the accounts of Padmasambhava’s biographies, the Copper-Coloured Mountain was originally inhabited by fierce flesh-eating rākṣasas. Padmasambhava transformed the kingdom of Raksas into a pureland of peace and perfection. This origin is founded not only upon a revelation from Guru Rinpoche’s unity of compassion and wisdom of a sacred place of “Revealed Treasures” (terma), but also has the real uniqueness of being a purely Tibetan pureland and an ultimate divine refuge for all tertöns and practitioners in the Nyingma Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.

    The Copper-Coloured Mountain manifests itself in the form of an island and is shaped like an inverted heart. The bottom of the mountain penetrates deeply into the underground of Naga’s realm. On the mountainside, it belongs to the realm of daka and dākinī. On the peak, the mountain reaches the realm of Brahma. The entire mountain is surrounded by a blue sea and the islands of the Rakshasa. In the vast plains of the mountain, Padmasambhava abides in a large three-storied edifice called The Lotus Light Palace. Made out of four gems, it is surrounded and protected by various deities and dharmapāla and also symbolizes the Trikāya of a Buddha, namely dharmakāya, sambhogakāya and nirmānakāya.

    The dissertation aims to analyze the “space” and “place” in the motif of the Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland through an investigation into three main Buddhist traditional sources, namely the tertöns’ biographies of Revealed Treasures, the paintings from Bhutan murals and Tibetan thangkas, and my own field research in the ritual practices of the Copper-Coloured Mountain in Hong Kong during the year 2014. It is found, as explained in Chapters Three, Four and Five respectively, that the Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland is multiply-constructed within the three traditions from six main perspectives: first, in the Buddhist scriptures, delicate symbols are used in interpreting the multi-spaces and places of the Copper-Coloured Mountain; second, in tertöns’ pure visions, the Copper-Coloured Mountain becomes a mixed-space of landscapes and sacred spaces for gaining the mind-treasures from Padmasambhava and his dākinī consorts; third, painting traditions convey the vital elements of its composition, such as the palace of the deities in multiple configurations and different figures in the appearances of Padmasambhava; fourth, in translation studies of the iconography, the paintings of Guru Tsangye (gu ru mtshan brgyad) reveal the varja dances of Padmasambhava with dynamic spaces for dialogues in both traditions; fifth, in Chokgyur Lingpa’s pure visions, both autobiographies and paintings engender differences and similarities in depictions of the journey into the Copper-Coloured mountain; and, finally, field researches of contemporary ritual in Hong Kong record the practices in visualizing a three-dimensional mandala of a three-storied Lotus Light palace that embodies holy and secular places/spaces-making and transformation.
    The conclusion comprises seven points confirming the understanding of the Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland as a configuration multiply-constructed by three traditions. Based on the analysis of “place” and “space” in the three distinct traditions, the hypothesis concerning the basic principles of Multiplicity, Interfusion and Creativity is substantiated. The Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland is not only a configuration built out of three traditions, but remains a sacred place/space coexisting and integrated into a single object of multiple constructions. Furthermore, in the conclusion of my research of the Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland, I suggest the authentic locations of the Copper-Colored Mountain Pureland and look forward to further investigating Padmasambhava’s pureland and extending the study with comparisons to other Tibetan purelands of Buddhas in future research.

    Through the three main Tibetan Buddhist traditional sources of its important crafts in the Copper-Colored Mountain Pureland, it is recognized that the traditional belief of Padmasambhava receives the agency of sustainability, continuity and consolidation. Also, the Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland manifests itself as a multiply-constructed tradition in a sacred form of a Tibetan Buddhist mountainized space of pureland belief. The Copper-Coloured Mountain Pureland reveals a sacred pivot for its tradition where cannot be able to locate in an authentic and specific site. For this undiscoverable reason, the Copper-Colored Mountain Pureland becomes an universally revealed pureland on our earth and the very way of wisdom and compassion from Padmasambhava’s solemnity.
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    德洛達娃多瑪 (Delog Dawa Drolma),項慧齡譯,《穿越六道輪迴之旅:西藏還魂人跨越死亡、返回人間的真實記錄》(Delog: Journey to Realms Beyond Death)。台北:城邦文化,2011年。
    堪布才旺.董嘉仁波切著,趙雨青譯,《無畏金剛智光:怙主敦珠仁波切的生平與傳奇》。台北:橡樹林文化,2012年。
    堪布尼瑪著,張昆晟譯,《佛教唐卡繪畫之沿革 : 明心歡喜園林》。臺中:臺中市龍欽佛學會,2011年。
    爾金林巴掘藏,洛珠加措、俄東瓦拉譯,《蓮花生大師本生傳》。西寧:青海人民出版社,1990年。
    鳩摩羅什譯,宣化上人講述,《佛說阿彌陀經淺釋》。台北:法總中文部,2006年。
    彌勒菩薩著,華智仁波切注釋,索達吉勘布仁波切漢譯,《現觀莊嚴論釋》。台北:秀威資訊,2013年。
    諾布旺典,《藏密神明圖鑑:85位最重要的藏密神明大全》。北京:紫禁城出版社,2009年。
    蔣貢米龐仁波切,項慧齡中譯,《白蓮花:蓮師七句祈請文闡釋》。台北市:橡樹林文化,2011年。
    第一世蔣貢康楚仁波切,張煒明譯,《西藏不分教派運動大師-蔣揚欽哲旺波傳》。台北:全佛文化事業,2007年。
    謝啟晃等主編,《藏族傳統文化辭典》。蘭州市:甘肅人民出版社,1993年。
    敦珠林巴原著,嘉初仁波切講解,丁乃筠、楊弦中譯,《不依執修之佛果: 自性大圓滿現證本來面目教導》(The Pointing out Instructions for Encountering one’s true face, Called Buddhahood Without Meditation)。台北:橡樹林文化, 2013年。
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    聖嚴法師著,《淨土在人間》。台北:法鼓,2003年。
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    英文書目

    Aldenderfer, M. “Caves as Sacred Places on the Tibetan Plateau.” Expedition 47.3: 2005. 8-13.
    Altmann, Karin, and Sarah Tolley. Trans. Fabric of life: Textile Arts in Bhutan: Culture, Tradition and Transformation. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016.
    Bailey, Cameron. The Raven and the Serpent: “The Great All-Pervading Rāhula” and Daemonic Buddhism in India and Tibet. Thesis of Florida State University, 2012.
    Bogin, Benjamin. “Locating the Copper-Colored Mountain: Buddhist Cosmology, Himalayan Geography, and Maps of Imagined Worlds.” Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies 34.5 (2014): 1-17.
    Buell, Lawrence. The Future of Environmental Criticism: Environmental Crisis and Literary Imagination. Malden: Blackwell Pub., 2005. 63.
    Carmichael David L. et al. Sacred Sites, Sacred Places. London: Routledge, 1994.
    Dahl, Cortland. Entrance to the Great Perfection: A Guide to the Dzogchen Preliminary Practices. New York: Snow Lion Publications, 2009.
    Doctor, Andreas. Tibetan Treasure Literature: Revelation, Tradition, and Accomplishment in Visionary Buddhism. New York: Snow Lion Publications, 2005.
    Eliade, Mircea. et al. Ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1987. 526-527.
    Gayley, Holly. “Soteriology of the Senses in Tibetan Buddhism.” Numen 54.4 (2007): 459-99.
    Georgios T, Halkias. Luminous Bliss: A Religious History of Pure Land literature in Tibet. Honolulu : University of Hawai Press, 2013.
    Govinda, Anagarika Brahmacari and Maurice Walshe. Trans. Buddhist Reflections. New Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, 1993.
    Gyaltsen, Sakyapa Sonam. “The Descent of the Tibetan Race from a Monkey and a Rock-Ogress.” McComas Taylor. Trans. The Clear Mirror: A Traditional Account of Tibet's Golden Age. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Pub., 1996.
    Gyatso, Janet. Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1997.
    Halkias, Georgios T. Luminous Bliss: A Religious History of Pure Land Literature in Tibet: With an Annotated English Translation and Critical Analysis of the Orgyan-gling gold Manuscript of the short Sukhāvatīv̄yuha-sūtra. Honolulu: U of Hawaiʻi P, 2013.
    Harding, Sara. Trans. The Life and Revelations of Pema Lingpa. New York: Snow Lion Publications, 2003.
    Huber, Toni. Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places in Tibetan Culture: A Collection of Essays. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1999.
    Hubert, Jane. “Sacred Beliefs and Beliefs of Sacredness.” Carmichael, David L. et al. Ed. Sacred Sites, Sacred Places. New York: Routledge, 1994.
    Jacoby, Sarah H. Love and Liberation: The Autobiographical Writings of the Tibetan Buddhist Visionary Sera Khandro. New York: Columbia UP, 2014.
    Janice Willis. Ed. “Dakini: Some Comments on Its Nature and Meaning.” Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet. New York: Snow Lion, 1987.
    Kapoor, Subodh. Ed. The Buddhists Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Vol. 4. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 2001.
    Lehtisalo, Pekka. “Holy Grounds: Landscapes in Tibetan Thangka Paintings.” Studia Orientalia 109 (2011): 71-72.
    Makley, Charlene E. The Violence of Liberation: Gender and Tibetan Buddhist Revival in Post-Mao China. Berkeley: U of California P, 2007.
    Matthieu, Ricard and Charles Hastings. Trans. Monk Dancers of Tibet. Boston: Shambhala, 2003.
    Mayer, Robert. “A Review of Zangdok Palri: The Lotus Light Palace of Guru Rinpoche.” Religion and Buddhism 32 (2015): 177-183.
    Namkhai Norbu, Chögyal. Trans. Adriano Clemente. Rainbow Body: The Life and Realization of Togden Ugyen Tendzin. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2012.
    Ngawang, Zangpo. Guru Rinpoché : His life and Times. N.Y.: Snow Lion P, 2002.
    Padmasambhava. Trans. Lipman, Kennard. Secret Teaching of Padmasambhava: Essential Instructions on Mastering the Energies of Life. London: Shambhala, 2010.
    Pema, Lingpa. Sarah Harding. Trans. The Life and Revelations of Pema Lingpa. New York: Snow Lion Publications, 2003.
    Richman, Paula. Ed. Ramayana Stories in Modern South India: An Anthology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.
    Sheldrake, Philip. Spaces for the Sacred: Place, Memory and Identity. London: SCM Press, 2001.
    Simmer-Brown, Judith. Dakini's Warm Breath: The Feminine Principle in Tibetan Buddhism. Boston: Shambhala, 2001.
    Supawan, Pui Lamsam, Kesang Choden Tashi Wangchuk. et al. Eds. Zangdok Palri: The Lotus Light Palace of Guru Rinpoche. Bangkok: Gatshel Publications, 2013.
    Terrone, Antonio. “The Earth as a Treasure in Tibetan Buddhism: Visionary Revelation and its Interactions with the Environment.” Study of Religion, Nature & Culture 8.4 (2014): 460-482.
    Thondup, Tulku. Talbott, Harold eds. Hidden Teachings of Tibet: An Explanation of the Terma Tradition of the Nyingma School of Buddhism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986.
    ---. Incarnation: The History and Mysticism of Tulku Tradition of Tibet. London: Shambhala, 2011.
    Tiso, Francis. V. Rainbow Body and Resurrection: Spiritual Attainment, The Dissolution of the Material Body, And The Case of Khenpo a Chö. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2016.
    Tobgyal, Orgyen. The Life of Chokgyur Lingpa. Nepal: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 1988.
    Traktung Dudjom Lingpa. Chönyi Drolma. Trans. A Clear Mirror: The Visionary Autobiography of A Tibetan Master. Hong Kong: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2011.
    Urgyen, Tulku Rinpoche. Rainbow Painting: A Collection of Miscellaneous Aspects of Development and Completion. Hong Kong: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2004.
    Yi-Fu, Tuan. Religion: From Place to Placelessness. Chicago: Chicago UP, 2009.

    網路資料

    大台南左鎮噶瑪噶居寺,蓮師八變金剛面具展,上網日期105年08月15日,檢自:http://w3.lopon.org.tw/news/news_0210_077.html
    大圓滿吉祥獅子五明佛法大學,格扎仁波切略傳,上網日期105年08月27日,檢自:http://www.buddhapath.net/html/dharma_centers/teacher_02.htm
    中華民國內政部,曼陀羅畫,全國宗教資訊網,上網日期104年05月10日,檢自:http://religion.moi.gov.tw/Knowledge/Content?ci=2&cid=112
    噶舉大祈願法會,蓮師三根本法會:《三寶總集》灌頂報導:蓮師化身噶瑪巴,主灌蓮師伏藏法,上網日期105年09月11日,檢自:http://www.kagyumonlam.org/chinese/news/Report_20140105_1.html
    第三屆香港2012-06-29蓮花生大士銅色吉祥山真實壇城法會首日花絮,上網日期105年08月07日,檢自:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4WDfCsasGlo
    喇嘛網,大圓滿三寶總攝教學與共修,上網日期105年09月13日,檢自:http://www.lama.com.tw/content/msg/data.aspx?id=11902
    喇嘛網,卓千堪布闕噶仁波切 大圓滿閉關講授進階:佛道簡介,上網日期105年09月18日,檢自:http://www.lama.com.tw/content/msg/data.aspx?id=10214
    2015年尼泊爾雪謙寺舉行密集上師淨業法會暨第八場蓮師八變金剛舞,上網日期105年09月05日,檢自:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svn2Wggk3lw
    “Padmasambhava - Pure Land (Copper Coloured Mountain).” 2016 Himalayan Arts Resources. Shechen Archives. 2012-2016 <http://www.himalayanart.org>.
    “Copper-Colored Mountain.” 2016 The Treasury of Lives: A Biographical Encyclopedia of Himalayan Religion. <http://treasuryoflives.org/>.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    宗教研究所
    99156501
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0991565013
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[宗教研究所] 學位論文

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