土地改革於農耕勞動密集度之影響，取決於所得效果與替代效果；前者使投入之勞動量減少，後者使之增加。租佃制度大別有二，即定比地租制與定額地租制。凡土地改革兼具所得與財富重分配目的者，必有所得效果；至替代效果，則唯有涉及定比地租制之土地改革方有之。如土地無償或低價移轉於前佃戶，但禁止其自由出讓，則如土地改革之受益者為前定比地租佃戶，農耕勞動密集度可增加、不變、或減少，視所得效果與替代效果之相對強度而定；設若受益者為前定額地租佃戶，則因只有所得效果發生作用，農耕之勞動密集度必然下降。凡此皆將影響土地之單位面積產量。但如土地係按實際價值作價移轉前佃戶，或雖係無償或低價移轉前佃戶，但允許其自由出讓，則土地改革消除定額地租制後，即不致有農耕勞動密集度下降之傾向；而消除定比地租制後，更可提高農耕之勞動密集度。 The impact of land reform on the labor intensity of cultivation depends on the operation of two posing forces: the income and substitution effects. The substitution effect will raise the work effort while the income effect will lower it. There are two major forms of tenancy: the share tenancy and the fixed-rent tenancy. Whichever may be the tenancy system before land reform, the income effect will be generated if an income/wealth redistribution objective is incorporated into the land reform program. As regards the substitution effect, it will occur only if land reform is carried out in a framework of share tenancy, as opposed to fixed-rent tenancy. On the assumption that land is distributed free of charge or at reduced prices but is prohibited from resale by land recipients, the labor intensity of cultivation may increase, remain unchanged, or decrease, depending on the relative strength of the income and substitution effects if the land reform is carried out among share-tenants. On the other hand, the labor intensity of cultivation must decrease if such reform is carried out among fixed-rent tenants, because now only an income effect is present. Other things being equal, the output per unit of land will be affected accordingly. However, if the land recipients are charged the full land prices or are allowed to resell their land freely afterwards if the land has been distributed to them without charges or at reduced prices, the tendency towards decreasing labor intensity of cultivation associated with the abolition of fixed-rent tenancy will be averted. And it will assure that the land will be cultivated more intensively than before land reform if the pre-reform tenancy system is that of share tenancy.