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    政大機構典藏 > 政大學報 > 第84期 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/102348
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    題名: 教學革新的經驗與反思--以國中英語教學為例
    其他題名: Reflection on Explorative Experiences of Instructional Innovation--Focusing on English Teaching in Junior High Schools in Taiwan
    作者: 蘇順發
    Su, Shun-fa
    貢獻者: 英語系
    關鍵詞: 溝通式英語教學;教學革新;教師發展
    Communicative Approach;Instructional Innovation;Teacher Development
    日期: 2002-07
    上傳時間: 2016-09-29 17:35:49 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 教學革新可視為一項課程改變的歷程。參酌Fullan & Pomfret(1977)、Glatthorn(1987,2000)及黃政傑(1991)之論述可推知,影響教學革新的因素,至少有下列因素:課程與教學因素、相關人員因素(尤其是教師與校長)、脈絡背景與實施策略因素等。此外,也探知欲因應教學革新,至少需要下列幾項層面的配合改變:教材的改變、組織的改變、(相關人員)知識理解、價值內化、角色行為的改變等。目前國內正在推動以溝通式英語教學理念為主的國中英語教學革新,係一項課程改變的歷程,也必然牽動下列各項相關層面的改變--即教材、組織(結構)、(相關人員)(對教學革新相關的)知識理解、價值內化、角色與行為等的改變。本報告係研究者在執行國科會研究計劃【教學革新相關因素及因應策略研究--以國中英語教學為例】之後,所提出的教學革新經驗與反思。由研究者兩年的觀察、調查與訪談研究,發現我國當前因應以溝通式英語教學理念為主的國中英語教學革新經驗大致如下:1.國編本的教材確實已有所改變,且部分私立學校甚至自行編選教材;編輯委員與部分私立學校似乎有意藉教材改變進行教學革新。2.除極少數公立學校外,大多數公立學校的班級與學校組織(結構)並未因應教學革新而改變;不少私立學校則為因應教學革新,而增加英語教學時數、增加外籍教師、增加會話課、增加英語學習活動、減少班級人數等。3.多數英語教師認同溝通式英語教學理念,但因教師對主客觀學習因素的考量,只有極少數英語教師將溝通式英語教學理念應用於教學實踐與教學評量上。4.多數教師以自我導向學習的方式進行其教師專業成長或發展。在教師專業成長或發展上,公立學校的英語教學研究會與教育行政機構,並未充分發揮具體功用;部分積極改革的私立學校及民間教育機構,則較能發揮實質功能。5.積極改革的公立學校,大多由教師內發,校長與行政人員積極給予行政支持;積極改革的私立學校,大多由學校行政先主導,大多數教師配合實施。由上述國中英語教學革新經驗,研究者有如下的反思:1.教材的改變、課程的改革,若無教師的教學革新,無法達成真正的教育改革。2.若教師認為革新的教學理念與實施,人複雜或無較佳的效益,教師大多不會配合實施教學革新。3.任何教學革新的達成,都要先提昇相關人員的知能,尤其是提昇教師的專業。4.教學革新需要學校組織與行政支持的配合,上下齊力、內外配合,才能奏功。總之,教學革新有賴於教師專業與學校組織及行政支持的配合。教師專業包括專業知能、專業信念與行動、專業成長、專業承諾。學校組織及行政支持,則涵蓋制度、組織、文化、人事、預算、設施等。教學革新,並非單一變項可獨立奏功;教師專業與學校組織及行政支持的配合,係以學校為本位、以英語教學研究會為主體、進行外塑與內引的長期教師發展,輔以行政激勵的機制,始能奏效。
    Instructional innovation is considered a means of educational reform. Essential to instructional innovation are some critical factors: personnel related to the innovation - especially teachers and the principal, the degree and difficulty of the innovation, the measures and strategies the school and the education authorities take, and the school context and social context- especially the organizational culture and system. Moreover, to cope with instructional innovation, we also need to change such elements as teaching materials and subject matter content, beliefs and roles and actions of the related people-especially teachers and the principal, and administrative supports and organizational culture (Fullan & Pomfret, 1977; Glatthorn, 1987, 2000). This report is reflection on explorative experiences of instructional innovation, focusing on English teaching in junior high schools in Taiwan. Some of the significant explorative experiences of instructional innovation are: 1.Change of teaching materials and subject matter content is the first step taken for improving English teaching and learning in junior high schools in Taiwan. 2.In some schools, especially private schools, they adapt some of the organizational systems, for example, increasing the periods of English course, shrinking the size of English class, employing native English teachers. 3.Most of English teachers approve of theory of Communicative Approach; however, only a few put the theory into practice, because of some internal factors (concerning the teacher and learners) and external factors ( other than the teacher and learners). 4.Most English teachers improve and empower their profession mainly by means of self-directed study, seldom through the teaching committee of each school and education authorities. 5.In the public school-improvement context, some of English teachers are active in and committed to instructional innovation, and then the principal and other administrators offer administrative supports. Nevertheless, in the private school-improvement context, the school and the principal take initiative in instructional innovation and offer administrative supports, and then all the English teachers are to be involved in the innovation. Reflecting on explorative experiences of instructional innovation, we get some implications: 1.Change of teaching materials and subject matter content is not enough to achieve the goal of instructional innovation. 2.If the theory of innovation is too sophisticated or the effectiveness of innovation is too vague for teachers to implement or operate, the goal may be not attained. 3. Professional development of English teachers and administrative supports play more important roles than any other factors in instructional innovation. 4. The task of instructional innovation will be successfully completed only when it is "taken" with the school and become fully institutionalized, and English teachers become committed to ensuring its success. In brief, for the success of any instructional innovation, the teaching committee of each school, as a growth group, should take more responsibility for teacher development through such activities as cooperative study, peer coaching, and interactive discussions.
    關聯: 國立政治大學學報, 84, 49-93
    資料類型: article
    顯示於類別:[第84期] 期刊論文

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