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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 哲學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/101118
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/101118


    Title: 行在淨土,解在唯識:近代東亞佛教的解神話詮釋學
    Demythologizing Amitābha: A Consciousness-Only Hermeneutics of Pure Land Buddhism in Modern East Asia
    Authors: 孫亞柏
    Zamorski, Jakub
    Contributors: 林鎮國
    Lin, Chen Kuo
    孫亞柏
    Jakub Zamorski
    Keywords: 解神話化
    淨土佛教
    唯識思想
    沈善登
    楊文會
    唐大圓
    demythologization
    Pure Land Buddhism
    Cosnciousness-only
    Shen Shandeng
    Yang Wenhui
    Tang Dayuan
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-09-02 00:02:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 此文獻以淨土佛教中的解神話化爭議來闡述更為廣泛的議題,意即,西方人文學科的分類(在此則特指宗教哲學)是否、以及在何種程度上,對於識別和解釋現代東亞知識發展有所助益?

    在序章中,已對此一普遍議題對當代淨土佛教研究如何產生影響有所說明。該領域長期以來受到日本學者—特別是被歸類為所謂「宗學」的日本淨土教派的學者們—所左右。毋庸置疑地,這些學者們所用以談論淨土傳統的思想框架,強烈地受到19世紀末日本面對西方哲學、神學之衝擊所影響。然而,近幾年來,部分西方學者認為,這樣的觀點並不適用於中國淨土佛教的情況,因為在中國,淨土宗並非一有系統之思想內容,而僅是作為虔誠與儀式實踐。本論文將以不同的切入點來探討此爭議。本文關注於:當淨土信仰與實踐被置於「佛教詮釋學」中的爭議來論述時,意即,以較為精練的方法論來詮釋文本時,西方化的思想框架是否能夠充分地呈現這些佛經的「詮釋者」們最初的關懷。

    本文所關注的議題,在於部分佛教現代主義者借助唯識思想來詮釋淨土信仰之傾向。如同在本書頭二章所敘述的,部分日本淨土「宗學家」將此種解讀歸類為將淨土佛教「解神話化」。在此,解神話被理解為對淨土神話的批判性詮釋,並以此回應現代化與西方化。此種詮釋亦被認為是回歸到淨土神話「真正的」意義,意即,阿彌陀佛實為內在真理之象徵,而非外存之他者。然而,如同第四章所述,在近代中國,以唯識學詮釋淨土教義的方法論發展,乃是對現代化之前、以及現代化早期所產生的、懸而未決之爭議的反動,而不僅是西方衝擊之下的產物。而如同第五章中所論及的,這些尚未塵埃落定的爭議其中之一,便是所謂「自性彌陀」是否應被理解為真正的救世主;又或者,其應當被視為嚮導、老師。

    在接續的章節中,筆者將著重於特別選定的若干核心材料,藉以呈現前述之中國佛教徒開始大量接受現代西方概念後所發展出來的詮釋學爭論。第六章探討由19世紀在家學者沈善登所撰寫的論著《報恩論》之殘篇。就筆者所知,《報恩論》為可知成書年代的漢語文獻中,最早從「現代」觀點來檢視淨土宗與唯識學的關係之著作,意即,該類撰文者普遍熟知後啟蒙時代的西方觀點。第七章則分析中、日對於適切理解淨土宗解脫敘述的爭論。該爭論為1899年至1901年間,楊文會與淨土真宗的一組僧人,即小栗栖香頂和内記龍舟,之間的筆戰。此處所關注之抄本收載了楊文會對唯識思想與淨土信仰的關係最為早期之書面表態,意即,其堅信淨土信仰應當與唯識思想之研修相互連結。雖已有部分學者對該爭論進行研究,然而,此一特殊面向卻尚未引起太多關注。為了進一步解析前述之發展於民國初期的概念,第八章將以唐大圓之選文作為研究實例。作為改革派在家居士,唐大圓主要活躍於20至30年代之間,亦為西方概念匯聚之時期。本章不僅剖釋唐大圓之銘言:「行在淨土,解在唯識」,亦將闡述此奠基於唯識思想之「解」如何在對同期淨土傳統、特別是對法藏菩薩之神話理解的批評中,揭示呈顯出來。

    最後,第九章將總結主要考察成果,並提出未來深入研究之可行方向。在第九章,筆者主張唯識思想為漢傳佛教提供了統一的準則來理解淨土神話,而此方式與兩種傳統解讀大相逕庭,意即,其並非彷彿單純的奉獻者一樣,照字面地將阿彌陀佛與淨土理解為「心外」之物,亦非如學院派讀法一般,將阿彌陀佛等同於心性。淨土信仰的唯識學詮釋能夠支持將阿彌陀佛視為人類社群的「啟發的領導者」此一現代想像;同時,其亦得以將佛教思想與現代對理想社會和社群發展的理念相互連結。
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    哲學系
    98154506
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0981545061
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