Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
A Study of Virtuous Cycle of Service Participation on Crowdsourcing Platforms
Lee, Agnes H.Y.
Shari S.C. Shang
Lee, Agnes H.Y.
|Issue Date: ||2016-09-01 23:46:17 (UTC+8)|
Crowdsourcing is a phenomenon that is receiving attention both inside and outside of academia. With the rapid development of ICT and the prevalence of the Internet, the crowdsourcing platform business model has had a dynamic impact on the market. Crowdsourcing offers a good transactional environment in which to fulfill people’s needs and wants, seizing values from products and/or services that are provided and/or requested in more flexible ways to solve problems and accomplish virtually anything in recent years. However, it is important to understand why participants (on both the supply and demand sides) join platforms to provide and request products and/or services. In addition, the operation of such platforms using the power of crowds includes three dimensions – technology assistance, strategy deployment, and operational mechanisms – to constantly attract and balance the flow of crowds, to generate information flows, and to stimulate the cash flows that allow the platform to continue to grow. The objectives of this research are as follows: (1) to explore what drives people to deliver and capture values by providing and requesting products or services on crowdsourcing platforms and (2) to investigate how to manage a successful crowdsourcing platform by motivating their virtuous cycles.
This is a qualitative multiple case study. There are two phases to this research. First, based on information gathered across industries and academia, we categorized crowdsourcing platforms into four major types: Information, Labor, Online plus Offline (OplusO), and Creation. We then revealed platform participants’ motivations for service participation and developed a conceptual framework to manage a virtuous cycle of service participation on crowdsourcing platforms. Second, we focused on Labor crowdsourcing platforms in Taiwan by conducting expert interviews to verify and revise our results from the first phase. This research provides a broader view of crowdsourcing platforms and their types in academia. Providers are typically motivated more by intrinsic motivations (autonomy, safety, and trust), whereas requestors are motivated by extrinsic motivations (such as finding practical (alternative) solutions, building reputation, and creating monetary wealth) in the crowdsourcing platform context. Moreover, this research provides practitioners with realistic management references in the technology, strategy, and operational dimensions to ready the platform and to meet the demand in the market. Technology is at the beginning of adopting crowdsourcing platforms and should be scalable. Scalability of the crowdsourcing platform involves constructing an ecosystem for a good transactional environment that facilitates growth, such that strategy deployment and operational mechanisms play important roles to support.
|Reference: ||1. Adamic, L. A., Zhang, J., Bakshy, E., & Ackerman, M. S. (2008). Knowledge Sharing and Yahoo Answers: Everyone Knows Something. In Proceedings of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 665-674). ACM.|
2. Airbnb (n. d.). How it Works. Airbnb.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016, from https://www.airbnb.com/help/getting-started/how-it-works?locale=en
3. Andrei, K. (2011). Nothing for Nothing: Kickstarter vs. IndieGoGo. Idealware.org. Retrieved 12 March 2016, from http://idealware.org/blog/nothing-nothing-kickstarter-vs-indiegogo#comment-5824
4. Athwal, N. (2014). The Disappearance Of Peer-To-Peer Lending. Forbes.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/groupthink/2014/10/14/the-disappearance-of-peer-to-peer-lending/#29ed88e50e6d
5. Barnett, C. (2013). Donation-Based Crowdfunding Sites: Kickstarter Vs. Indiegogo. Forbes.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/chancebarnett/2013/09/09/donation-based-crowdfunding-sites-kickstarter-vs-indiegogo/#60e5e4291558
6. Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559.
7. Bercovici, J. (2014). The Bear Case For Uber (Yes, There Is One). Forbes.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/pictures/eeji45emgkh/airbnb-snapgoods-and-12-more-pioneers-of-the-share-economy/#56ab211d7226
8. Bernoff, J. (2014). Succeeding In The Mobile Mind Shift. Forbes.com - Tech. Retrieved 12 March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/forrester/2014/06/24/succeeding-in-the-mobile-mind-shift/#fee777e61183
9. Bogner, A., Littig, B., & Menz, W. (2009). Interviewing Experts. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
10. Bort, J. (2015). Judge Throws out United's Lawsuit Against 22-Year-Old Computer Whiz Who Found A Way to Get Cheap Airfare, Rules Lawsuit Can Be Filed in Different Jurisdiction. Business Insider - Tech. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/young-founder-wins-united-orbitz-suit-2015-5
11. Brabham, D. C. (2008a). Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving: An Introduction and Cases. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14(1), 75-90. doi:10.1177/1354856507084420
12. Brabham, D. C. (2008b). Moving the Crowd at Istockphoto: the Composition of the Crowd and Motivations for Participation in a Crowdsourcing Application. Retrieved 19 March 2016, from http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2159/1969
13. Brabham, D. C. (2012). Motivations for Participation in a Crowdsourcing Application to Improve Public Engagement in Transit Planning. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 40(3), 307-328.
14. Buley, T. (2009). Million-Dollar Crowd Sourcing. Forbes.com. Retrieved 1st March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/2009/09/08/crowd-sourcing-shankman-technology-internet-haro.html
15. Carpenter, S. (2010). A Study of Content Diversity in Online Citizen Journalism and Online Newspaper Articles. New Media & Society, 12(7), 1064-1084.
16. Caulfield, B. (2011). Amazon Mechanical Turk Will Hook You Up With Porn Jobs That Pay Pennies. Forbes.com. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/briancaulfield/2011/06/15/amazon-mechanical-turk-will-hook-you-up-with-porn-jobs-that-pay-pennies/#c09734c5ad3e
17. Chanal, V., & Caron-Fasan, M.-L. (2010). The Difficulties Involved in Developing Business Models Open to Innovation Communities: the Case of a Crowdsourcing Platform. Management, 13(4), 318-340.
18. Chen, Y.-J. (2013). White Collars Earn High Profits by Short Renting Spare Rooms on Airbnb. Business Next.com. Retrieved 4 April 2016, from http://www.ettoday.net/news/20130522/211253.htm
19. Chiu, C. M., Cheng, H. L., Huang, H. Y., & Chen, C. F. (2013). Exploring Individuals' Subjective Well-Being and Loyalty Towards Social Network Sites from the Perspective of Network Externalities: the Facebook Case. International Journal of Information Management, 33(3), 539-552.
20. Coburn, M. (2010). On Groupon and its founder, Andrew Mason. Chicago Magazine. Retrieved 6 March 2016, from http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/August-2010/On-Groupon-and-its-founder-Andrew-Mason
21. Coles, P., & Edelman, B. (2011). Mobilizing Networked Businesses. Harvard Business School Module Note 911-048, March 2011. (Revised February 2015.)
22. Cook, S. (2008). The Contribution Revolution: Letting Volunteers Build Your Business. Harvard Business Review, 86(10), 60-69.
23. Crowdsourcing.org. (2010). Crowdsourcing.org. Retrieved 27 February 2016, from http://www.crowdsourcing.org/site/istockphoto/wwwistockphotocomindexphp/1505
24. Crowdsourcing.org. (2015).Crowdsourcing.org. Retrieved 27 February 2016, from http://www.crowdsourcing.org/editorial/the-sharing-economy-debates-are-just-getting-started/50520
25. Daileda, C. (2014). Now Anyone Can Use Getty Stock Photos for Free. Mashable.com. Retrieved 1st March 2016, from http://mashable.com/2014/03/05/getty-free-photo-embeds/#.V9eEZ_UwEqZ
26. DesignContest (n. d.). Designers Join Us. DesignContest.com. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from https://www.designcontest.com/designers-join-us/
27. DesignContest (n. d.). How It Works? DesignContest.com. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from https://www.designcontest.com/how-it-works/
28. Dholakia, U. M. (2010). How Effective are Groupon Promotions for Businesses? Available at SSRN 1696327. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1696327
29. Do you like Yahoo Answers? (n. d.) Retrieved 27 February 2016, from https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120428195255AAhJSjH
30. Eisenmann, T. R. (2006) Platform-Mediated Networks: Definitions and Core Concepts. Harvard Business School Module Note 807-049, September 2006. (Revised October 2007.)
31. Eisenmann, T. R.(2008) Managing Proprietary and Shared Platforms. California Managemnt Review, 50(4), 31-53
32. Eisenmann, T.R., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2006). Strategies for Two-Sided Markets. Harvard Business Review article from Boston University School of Management.
33. Eisenmann, T.R., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2011). Platform Envelopment. Strategic Management Journal, 32(12), 1270-1285.
34. Erickson, L. B. (2013). Hanging with the Right Crowd: Crowdsourcing as A New Business Practice for Innovation, Productivity, Knowledge Capture, and Marketing. (Doctor of Philosophy), The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved from https://etda.libraries.psu.edu/paper/17524/16019 READCUBE database.
35. flyingV (n. d.). How to Propose a Project? flyingV. Retrieved 13 March 2016, from https://www.flyingv.cc/tutorial
36. Gillespie, P. (2015). How A 23-Year-Old Beat United Airlines. CNN - Money. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://money.cnn.com/2015/12/31/investing/aktarer-zaman-how-i-beat-united-airlines/
37. Glott, R., Schmidt, P., & Ghosh, R. (2010). Wikipedia Survey–Overview of Results. United Nations University: Collaborative Creativity Group.
38. Groupon (n. d.). About Groupon. Groupon.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016, from https://www.groupon.com/press/about-groupon
39. Grout, V. (2013). How To Use Airbnb To Profit From Your Second Home. Forbes.com. Retrieved 21st March 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/vanessagrout/2013/11/04/how-to-use-airbnb-to-profit-from-your-second-home/#4ec128462f1d
40. Grueskin, C. (2015). The Uncertain World of Crowdfunding Your Day in Court. Wired.com. Retrieved 12th March 2016, from http://www.wired.com/2015/11/the-uncertain-world-of-crowdfunding-lawyer-fees-and-bail
41. Hossain, M., & Kauranen, I. (2015). Crowdsourcing: A Comprehensive Literature Review. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 8(1), 2-22.
42. Howe, J. (2006). The Rise of Crowdsourcing. Wired, 14(6), 1-4.
43. IHsin (2015). How Do Technology Products Crowdsource? Eight Key Points Indiegogo Organized From 29,000 Projects! Crowd Watch.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016, from http://crowdwatch.tw/reports/150
44. Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Demographics of Mechanical Turk (Tech. Rep. No. CeDER-10-01). New York: New York University. Retrieved 19 March 2016 from http://hdl.handle.net/2451/29585.
45. iSURVEY EasternOnline (2016). How Hot Are Uber And Airbnb! Five Pictures Show How Taiwanese Enterprises Follow The Trends Of “Sharing Economy” Business Next.com. Retrieved 25 April 2016, from http://www.bnext.com.tw/article/view/id/39293
46. Katz, M. L., & Shapiro, C. (1985). Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility. The American economic review, 75(3), 424-440.
47. Krishnamurthy, S. (2006). On The Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation Of Free/Libre/Open Source (FLOSS) Developers. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 18(4), 17-39.
48. Kuznetsov, S. (2006). Motivations of Contributors to Wikipedia. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 36(2), article 1.
49. Lebraty, J.-F., & Lobre-Lebraty, K. (2013). Forms of Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing (p.47-96): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
50. Lim, S. (2009). How and Why Do College Students Use Wikipedia? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(11), 2189-2202.
51. Lin, Jin-Ding, Yen, Chia-Feng, & Chen, Mei-Hua. (2005). Qualitative Research Method: Models and Steps of Interviewing. Journal of Disability Research., (3)2, 122-136.
52. Lopez, J. (2014). Where Are You On The Digital Business Development Path?. Forbes-Tech. Retrieved 30 May 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gartnergroup/2014/08/26/where-are-you-on-the-digital-business-development-path/#e73872869b6b
53. Muthukumaraswamy, K. (2010). When the Media Meet Crowds of Wisdom: How Journalists are Tapping into Audience Expertise and Manpower for the Processes of Newsgathering. Journalism practice, 4(1), 48-65.
54. Mutter, A. D. (2009). He Makes $1 Million Crowdsourcing Sources. Newsosaur.com. Retrieved 1st March 2016, from http://newsosaur.blogspot.tw/2009/04/he-makes-1-million-crowdsourcing.html
55. Okoli, C. M. M., Mesgari, M., Nielsen, F., & Lanamäki, A. (2014). Wikipedia in the Eyes of Its Beholders: A Systematic Review of Scholarly Research on Wikipedia Readers and Readership. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(12), 2381–2403.
56. Olson, D. L., & Rosacker, K. (2012). Crowdsourcing and open source software participation. Service Business, 7(4), 499-511. doi:10.1007/s11628-012-0176-4
57. Pay4Bugs (n. d.). About Pay4Bugs. Pat4Bugs.com. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from https://www.pay4bugs.com/
58. Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan, Isabel Fernandez-Mateo, & David Chen. (2009). Zopa: The Power of Peer-to-Peer Lending. Harvard Business School Case, 709-469, March 2009. (Revised September 2011.)
59. Rockart, J. F. (1979). Chief Executives Define Their Own Data Needs. Harvard Business Review, 57(2), 81-93.
60. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.
61. Rysman, M. (2009). The Economics of Two-Sided Markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(3), 125-143.
62. Saxena, S. (n. d.). Which One Do You Like More, Quora or Yahoo Answers? Quora.com. Retrieved 4th March 2016, from https://www.quora.com/Which-one-do-you-like-more-Quora-or-Yahoo-Answers
63. Scevak N. (2014). Forrester Research Wolrd Tablet Adoption Forecast, 2013 to 2018 (Global). Forrester Research.
64. Schadler, T., Bernoff, J., & Ask, J. (2014). The Mobile Mind Shift: Engineer Your Business to Win in the Mobile Moment. Forrester Research/Groundswell Press.
65. Shankman, P. (2009). The Ultimate HARO (Help a Reporter Out) FAQ. Shankman.com. Retrieved 1st March 2016, from http://shankman.com/haro-master-faq/
66. Shankman, P. (2012). HARO/Forbes: Can One Idiot Ruin it for Everyone? NO. Business Insider.com. Retrieved 1st March 2016, from http://mobile.businessinsider.com/haroforbes-can-one-idiot-ruin-it-for-everyone-no-2012-7
67. Sitejabber (n. d.). Amazon Mechanical Turk reviews. Sitejabber.com. Retrieved 4 April 2016, from http://www.sitejabber.com/reviews/www.mturk.com
68. Spagnoletti, P., Resca, A., & Lee, G. (2015). A Design Theory for Digital Platforms Supporting Online Communities: A Multiple Case Study. Journal of Information Technology, 30(4), 364-380.
69. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research (Vol. 15). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
70. Struck, A. (n. d.). The Top 5 Best Sites to Buy Stock Photos Online. Stock Photo Press.com. Retrieved 2nd March 2016, from http://www.stockphotosecrets.com/buyers-guide/buy-stock-photography-online.html
71. Su, Y.-T. (2016). The Emperor Of Sharing Economy – Development Of Airbnb. Business Next.com. Retrieved 8 April 2016, from http://www.bnext.com.tw/article/view/id/38813
72. TechOrange (2014). Kickstarter Vs. Indiegogo：Who Is The Boss Of Crowdsourcing Platforms? TechOrange.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://buzzorange.com/techorange/2013/08/09/kickstarter-and-indiegogo-who-is-boss
73. Tegos, M. (2015). Online grocery startup Honestbee raises $15M from Silicon Valley to deliver the goods. TECHINASIA. Retrieved 30 May 2016, from https://www.techinasia.com/honestbee-series-a-funding
74. Trump, R. (2013). Why Would You Ever Give Money Through Kickstarter? The New York Times.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/magazine/why-would-you-ever-give-money-through-kickstarter.html?_r=0
75. Trustpilot (n. d.). Designcontest reviews. Trustpilot.com. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from https://www.trustpilot.com/review/www.designcontest.com
76. Tseng, A. (2016). Win the Market as a Latecomer: Resolving Crowdsourcing Platform – Kickstarter. Business Next.com. Retrieved 8 April 2016, from http://www.bnext.com.tw/article/view/id/38503
77. Weisser, C. (2015). How I Outsourced My Most-Hated Chores for $15 an Hour. TIME.com. Retrieved 17 April 2016, from http://time.com/money/3735622/when-to-use-taskrabbit/
78. Wikipedia (n. d.). Yahoo! Answers. Wikipedia.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahoo!_Answers
79. Wikipedia (n. d.). YahooQimoZhishi+. Wikipedia.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016, from https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahoo!%E7%9F%A5%E8%AD%98%2B
80. Wu S. (2013). Forrester Research World Smartphone Adoption Forecast, 2012 to 2017 (Global). Forrester Research.
81. Walters, T. (2013). Understanding the “Mobile Shift”: Obsession with the Mobile Channel Obscures the Shift to Ubiquitous Computing. Digital Clarity Group
82. Yahoo Answers (2012). Do you like Yahoo Answers? Yahoo Answers.com. Retrieved 18 March 2016, from https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120428195255AAhJSjH
83. Yahoo Answers (n. d.). How does Answers work? Yahoo Answers.com. Retrieved 18 March 2016, from https://answers.yahoo.com/info/product_tour
84. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
85. Zaman, A. (2014). Skiplagged vs United Airlines. GoFundMe. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from https://www.gofundme.com/skiplagged
86. Zhang, X., & Zhu, F. (2006). Intrinsic Motivation of Open Content Contributors: the Case of Wikipedia. Workshop on Information Systems and Economics, 1601-1615.
87. Zhao, Y. C. & Zhu, Q. (2014). Effects of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation on Participation in crowdsourcing Contest. Online Information Review, 38(7). 896-917.
88. Zimmermann, J. (2015). This is What it Takes to Make $2,000 a Week Working on TaskRabbit. TIME.com. Retrieved 5 March 2016, from http://time.com/money/3714829/working-for-taskrabbit/
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1033560061|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[資訊管理學系] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.