在不到二十年的時間之內，隨著社會政治經濟系統和機制的崩解，俄羅斯媒體系統與制度急遽地轉變。過去對於蘇聯共產國家自由或不自由二分法的概念不再適用，而在新近媒體理論也未能完整描述俄羅斯媒體制度的現況和特性。如何瞭解今天的俄羅斯媒體系統？在這近二十年當中，它在不同的社會政治環境中經歷了哪些轉變？該如何去定義它目前的媒體政策和制度？為釐清以上的問題，本文分析俄國在改革開放以來所經歷的各個階段，以及其中媒體系統的變遷。俄國媒體制度的獨特處在於，不同的演變階段和不同的模式是相對應的，但在階段之間是有連續性的。每個隨後的階段還保留了上一階段的部份或全部特徵。本研究回顧重要俄羅斯學者對媒體發展的界定，並分析在各階段中的法規政策制訂，以歸結出俄國媒體制度的相應模式。 In less than 20 years, the collapse of the socio-political-economic system compelled rapid change in the media system and policy of Russia. The dichotomization of freedom and no freedom for the former Soviet Union was no longer applicable. In addition, the contemporary media theories could not wholly explain the state of current Russian media system and the characteristics. How to understand the contemporary media system in Russia? What types of changes did such system undergo in the last 2 decades under different socio-politically environment? How to define its current media system? In responding to these questions, this study is an attempt to analyze the different stages of reforms in Russia after democratization and the changes in the media system. One unique feature of the media system in Russia was that the development at various stage corresponded to different models. One stage was the continuation of preceding stage and subsequent stage carried the characteristics of preceding stage in completely or in part. This paper showed how Russian scholars defined the stages of media development in order to analyze the legal rules applicable to each stage of development, and concluded the models relevant with the Russian media system.
俄羅斯學報, 9, 33-80 Journal of Russian studies Vestnik instituta rossii