雍正七年(1729年)，清朝政府行文給俄國，表示將派使臣前往莫斯科向新登基的彼得二世祝賀。並有隨同使臣前往的朝廷官員，將向俄國借道前往土爾扈特部族居住地。同年五月十八日，清朝政府為派使臣前往俄國賀俄皇即位，及派官員前往土爾扈特一事再發出咨文，表示將派侍郎托時等人前往俄國，此封咨文並由托時攜帶前往俄國。雍正為何要派使節團前往俄國，是單純的只為慶賀俄皇登基，或是另有其目的，其背後動機值得探討。而中國第一次派正式的使節團前往俄國，在清代官修史書上，卻看不到任何的記載。對於此段史實，部份學者曾撰文探討，但說法不一，另外可能受限於當時環境因素，部份滿文、俄文檔案史料因而未引用在文章之內。本文擬引用相關檔案史料，針對雍正為何要派使節團赴俄國的動機，並用「封貢體制」之概念，說明托時等人與俄國政府人員交涉有關覲見俄國皇帝外交禮儀問題，以及為何清朝官修史書不見此段記載，而部份學者對此文題所提出不同的看法，筆者擬作簡單扼要的說明。 In 1729, Qing government wrote the letter to Russia, wanting to sent the envoy and administrator to congratulate the Peter II on his ascension, and pass the Russia to the inhabited area of Turugut tribe. On May,1729, Qing government wrote the letter again and expressed that Tuo-shr will be going to Russia. Why the Yongzheng Emperor sent the envoy to Rassia? It only for congratulate the Peter II on his ascension or has the goal in addition? The results is worth ot explore. The history books blind any record about China first time sent the diplomatic corps to Russia, some scholars has been researched but the view are not one. This thesis will attempt to use the archives to researched the cause that why the Yongzheng Emperor sent the envoy to Rassia, and plans to use the concept of “Tributary system” to explain that Tuo-shr negotiated with Russian government personnel for diplomatic protocol of audience with the Peter II. The author also plans to explain that why this section of records didn’t got the metion by Qing government.
俄羅斯學報, 9, 1-32 Journal of Russian studies Vestnik instituta rossii