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    政大機構典藏 > 學術期刊 > 俄羅斯學報 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/100878
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    題名: 19-20世紀中國人在開發西伯利亞與俄羅斯遠東地區之角色
    其他題名: The Role of Chinese in Developing Siberia and Russia's Far East in the 19(superscript th) and 20(superscript th) Centuries
    作者: 季諾飛也夫
    Zinov'yev
    日期: 2002-02
    上傳時間: 2016-08-30 14:27:55 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 西伯利亞及遠東地區爲歐亞天候最嚴寒地區,由於商業人士及沙皇軍隊軍事征討結果於17至19世紀間歸附俄羅斯,由於當地居民人口數量少,社會經濟發展水準較低無法做出實際的抵抗,濱海邊區最後才歸附。
    中國人(漢人)在此地的也曾是“稀客",僅有一些滿洲人偶而在此收稅,中國人直到19世紀70年代方獲許在滿洲里屯墾,該地19世紀至20世紀初的人口從此增加十倍餘,清廷將中國之移民視爲對付俄羅斯擴張的唯一方法。
    中國之商人與工人在俄羅斯遠東區域已是稀鬆平常,他們都是從事礦業,建築以及漁業方面勞動,根據官方資料(1910年)這些人的數量達九萬三千人,第一次世界大戰時期甚至投入西伯利亞區域的國防措施的工人中,其中百分之三十六的工人是外籍人士,基本上是中國人。
    儘管沒有中國人的參與,俄國東方邊區的經濟開發極爲困難,20世紀初很多政論家及官員認爲,較難接受同化的中國人對俄羅斯人在遠東的利益構成嚴重威脅,,相關的文獻極爲繁多,請閱所羅金納的書,『華人在俄羅斯遠東地區的經濟活動及濱黑龍江邊區的管理政策(19世紀末20世紀初)』,歐姆斯克1999年,頁3-20;所羅爲也夫,『中國人資本主義時期(1861-1917)在俄羅斯遠東地區打零工活動』,莫斯科1989年出版;以及季諾維也夫的文章,『19世紀末20世紀初中國及韓國工人在西伯利亞地區的採礦活動』,俄羅斯18世紀到20世紀經濟史問題研究,拖姆斯克1996年,頁79-106。
    俄羅斯、中國的內戰及之後的關係複雜,使得中國在俄羅斯遠東地區的殖民活動停頓很久,隨著俄中兩國建立正常關係,中國人恢復對俄羅斯領土的滲透,一世紀以前的情況現在又重新上演,非法的移民、非法捕撈漁獲、走私及小買賣越來越蓬勃,而媒體報導也一再提出“黃禍"的問題,當時國力強大的俄羅斯對上積弱不振、危機頻仍的中國,而現在正好相反,身陷危機的俄羅斯在應付經濟上蓬勃發展的中國。
    面對當今的情況,我們應如何兼顧俄中雙方的利益以及台灣對此有何著力點?這些問題難以三言兩語就回答清楚,但是尚有一些不證自明的一些東西,俄羅斯擁有經濟成長中最需要的豐富自然資源(首要是碳氫化合物),但是卻缺乏天然氣及石油管的幹線,我們需要一個能夠令擁有自由資金的潛在消費者感到興趣的一個計劃,日本及台灣都有可能是我們談得對象,最有可行性的一個計劃即舖設由亞馬爾半島到中國的北岸,或者到俄羅斯的遠東地區天然氣管線,並建造液化瓦斯工廠以供應台灣及日本。
    Siberia and Russia's Far East are the most frigid places in Europe and Asia. During the period between the 17(superscript th) and 19(superscript th) centuries Siberia submitted to Russia as a result of military incursion. Because of sparse population and low-level of social-economic development, there could not be substantial resistance. The coastal areas were conquered last.
    Chinese (the Han) used to be few and between in this area until the 19(superscript th) century. Only a number of Manchurians came to collect taxes here. In the 1870s, Chinese were permitted to settle in Manzhouli. Until early 20(superscript th) century, the population had grown more than ten times in that area. The Ching dynasty regarded migration as the only way to resist Russian expansion.
    Since then, Chinese merchants and labors were not unusual in this area. Most engaged in mining, construction, and fisheries. According to official data in 1910, the number was 93,000. In World War I, 36 percent of the defense construction laborers in Siberia were foreigners, mostly Chinese.
    Although the economic development of Russian's Far East would be extremely difficult without the participation of Chinese, to many political critics and officials, the Chinese, who were unlikely to be integrated into the local society and culture, posed a serious threat to Russia's interests in its far east. There was a vast literature on this subject, including Sorokina, 1999. The Chinese's Economic Activities in the Russia's Far East and the Policy toward the Heilongjiang River border area at the turn of the 20(superscript th) century. Omsk: Russia, 3-20; Soloviev, 1989. Chinese Odd-Job Workers in Russia's Far East in China's Capitalist Period (1861-1917). Moscow; Zinov'yev. 1996. ”The Chinese and Korean Miners in Siberia at the turn of the 20(superscript th) century,” in The Study of Economic Historical Issues in Russia from 18(superscript th) to 20(superscript th) Century, Omsk: 79-106.
    The Sino-Russian War led to an extended halt of Chinese migration into Russia's Far East. With the normalization of Sino-Russian relations, Chinese resumed to infiltrate into the Russian territory. Illegal immigration, illegal fishery, bootlegging and peddling re-emerged, as they did a century ago. Media repeatedly called to the public’s attention of the so-called ”Yellow peril.” At the time, Russia was powerful, while China was weak and ridden by crises. However, as the table turned, Russia is disturbed by crises, while China is experiencing rapid development.
    Under the circumstance, what can we do in order not to sacrifice the interests of either side? And what can Taiwan exert any influence on that? These are not simple questions. Nevertheless, there are some self-evident solutions. For example, Russia has the rich natural resource (mainly carbon-hydro) that is badly needed in economic development. Yet, it is in need of gas and oil pipelines. We need a proposal that can interest potential customers who have capitals, such as Japan and Taiwan. A most feasible route can be from Yamal Peninsula to Northern China or to Russia's Far East, to supply natural gas to Japan or Taiwan.
    關聯: 俄羅斯學報, 2, 291-310
    Journal of Russian studies
    Vestnik instituta rossii
    資料類型: article
    顯示於類別:[俄羅斯學報] 期刊論文

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