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    Title: 非專利實施實體與營運企業廠商創新之合作模式
    The Innovative Cooperation Model of NPE and Operating Company-the Dynamic Competitive Perspective on U.S. District Court Cases
    Authors: 翁宏義
    Contributors: 許牧彥
    翁宏義
    Keywords: 美國聯邦地方法院
    專利
    非專利實施實體
    動態競爭
    覺察
    動機
    能力
    架構
    U.S. district court
    patent
    NPE
    non-practicing entity
    dynamic competitive theory
    competitive dynamics
    AMC framework
    focal firm
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2016-08-22 13:35:51 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 從2010年到2015年, 非專利實施實體(Non-practicing entities)所引發的專利侵權訴訟案件數量成長了四倍,在2015年的案件數已超過了3,800件,其中絕大部分都是屬於本文所定義之非專利實施實體的其中一種類型–專利權主張實體(Patent assertion entities),越多的專利侵權訴訟案件不僅會分散營運企業廠商管理階層對於創新所投入的研究發展資源,也會讓營運企業廠商額外投注更多的資源在龐大的專利侵權訴訟成本上,本文所觀察到的現象是,即便在非專利實施實體所引發的專利侵權訴訟案件數量呈現正成長的趨勢下,某些營運企業廠商仍然可以減少其所面對關於非專利實施實體所引發的專利侵權案件數,為了解讀這樣的現象,僅能夠透過動態競爭理論加以解釋,並透過實證研究的方式,收集與分析美國法院官方訴訟案件資料庫與紀錄(Public Access to Court Electronic Records, 簡稱PACER),統計美國地方法院關於非專利實施實體所引發之專利侵權訴訟案件資料,並進一步挑選具體個案,以動態競爭理論中的覺察–動機–能力架構(Awareness-Motivation-Capability framework,簡稱AMC架構)進行個案解讀,結果發現營運企業焦點廠商(Focal firm)與非專利實施實體共同建立創新之合作模式,特別是透過營運企業焦點廠商將能力轉讓給非專利實施實體所建立的間接型競爭行動合作模式,有利於為兩者分別在產品市場(針對營運企業焦點廠商而言)和專利授權市場(針對非專利實施實體而言)帶來競爭優勢。
    From 2010 through 2015, the patent litigation cases relating to NPEs (Non-practicing entities) have been doubled twice which was over 3,800 cases in 2015. Most of the increase of patent litigation cases were brought by PAEs (Patent assertion entities), one of the four types of NPEs defined in this article. It is suggested that more patent litigations cases will not only distract the management of the operating companies from research and development for innovations, but also additionally contribute resources for obvious patent litigation costs. One of the observations of this article is that even the total amount of the patent litigation cases relating to NPEs was increasing, some of the operating companies were still able to decrease the patent litigation cases against them incurred by NPEs. This is one phenomena that can only be explained by dynamic competition theories (a.k.a. competitive dynamics) that this article addresses by empirically investigates the statistical information from the official databases and records of U.S. courts (Public Access to Court Electronic Records, PACER) and analyzes the results with specific cases by Awareness-Motivation-Capability (AMC) framework introduced by said dynamic competition theories. It was found in this article that to collaboratively establish innovative cooperation models by the NPE and the operating company (Focal firm), especially through contributing capability from the focal firm to the NPE for establishing the indirect cooperation models can be beneficial to both for competition advantages in the product market (for the focal firm) and the patent licensing market (for the NPE) respectively.
    Reference: 壹、中文文獻
    1.陳明哲(2012年8月),動態競爭與傳統靜態競爭分析,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。

    2.陳明哲(2012年11月),預測競爭對手的回應:AMC分析法初探,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。

    3.陳明哲(2012年10月),行動與回應:競爭分析的基礎,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。

    4.陳明哲(2012年9月),認識動態競爭分析的內涵,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。

    5.陳明哲(2012年7月),在動態的競爭環境中勝出,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。

    6.陳明哲(2011年3月),西方遇見東方:邁向文化雙融的管理模式,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。

    7.林豪傑、喬友慶、侯勝宗編譯,陳明哲著(2010年6月),動態競爭,台北:智勝。

    8.李芳齡譯,頂尖對決:Apple、谷歌與微軟的商戰風雲。台北:時報。

    9.陳修賢著(2008年),後波特時代的企業優勢,哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版,第25期,頁466-69。

    10.吳思華著(2000年),策略九說,臉譜出版社。

    11.李郁怡著(2011年),動態競爭大師教CEO搞懂對手,商業週刊,第207期,頁68-72。

    12.劉麗真譯(2000年),大策略家,農學社。

    13.李芳齡譯(2012年),5個技巧簡單學創新,台北:天下。

    貳、英文文獻
    1.Hsu, Mu-Yen and Ming-Jer Chen (2008), “Multimarket Contact and Interfirm Rivalry”, Asia Academy of Management(AAOM) Annual Meeting, Dec.16, Taipei, Taiwan.

    2.McAdams, David (2014) Game Changer: Game Theory and the Art of Transforming Strategic Situations, Norton & Company.

    3.Chen, Ming-Jer. 2009. “Competitive Dynamics Research: An Insider’s Odyssey,” Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 26: 5-26.

    4.Chen, Ming-Jer, Ken G. Smith, and C.M. Grimm. 1992. “Action Characteristics as Predictors of Competitive Responses.” Management Science, 38: 439-455.

    5.Chen, Ming-Jer and Ian C. MacMillan. 1992. “Nonresponse and Delayed Response to Competitive Moves: The Roles of Competitor Dependence and Action Irreversibility.” Academy of Management Journal, 35: 359-370.

    6.Chen, Ming-Jer and Danny Miller. 1994. “Competitive Attack, Retaliation and Performance: An Expectancy-Valence Framework.” Strategic Management Journal, 15: 85-102

    7.Chen, Ming-Jer and Donald C. Hambrick. 1995. “Speed, Stealth, and Selective Attack: How Small Firms Differ from Large Firms in Competitive Behavior,” Academy of Management Journal, 38: 453-482.

    8.Miller, Danny and Ming-Jer Chen. 1994. “Sources and Consequences of Competitive Inertia: A Study of the U.S. Airline Industry.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 39: 1-23.

    9.Chen, Ming-Jer. 1996. “Competitor Analysis and Inter-firm Rivalry: Toward a Theoretical Integration,” Academy of Management Review, 21: 100-134.

    10.McGrath, Rita G., Ming-Jer Chen, and Ian C. MacMillan. 1998. “Multimarket Maneuvering in Uncertain Spheres of Influence: Resource Diversion Strategies,” Academy of Management Review, 23: 724-740.

    11.Hambrick, Donald C., Theresa Cho, and Ming-Jer Chen. 1996. “The Influence of Top Management Team Heterogeneity on Competitive Moves,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 41: 659-684.

    12.Chen, Ming-Jer, Hao-Chieh Lin, & John Michel. 2010. “Prospering in a Hypercompetitive Environment: The Roles of TMT Dynamics and Competitive Behavior,” Strategic Management Journal, 31: 1410-1430.

    13.Chen, Ming-Jer, Kuo-Hsien Su, and Wenpin Tsai. 2007. “Competitive Tension: The Awareness-Motivation-Capability Perspective,” Academy of Management Journal, 50:101-108.

    14.Tsai, Wenpin, Kuo-Hsien Su, and Ming-Jer Chen. 2011. “Competitor Acumen: Market Antecedents and Consequences,” Academy of Management Journal, 54: 761-778.

    15.Chen, Ming-Jer, Jiing-Lih Farh, and Ian C. MacMillan. 1993. “An Exploration of the “Expertness” of Outside Informants.” Academy of Management Journal, 36: 1614-1632.

    16.Brian, S. S. and Joel A. C. 2002. “Alliance-based competitive dynamics,” Academy of Management Journal, 45(4): 791-806.

    17.Chen, Ming-Jer. 2008. “Reconceptualizing the Competition-Cooperation Relationship: A Transparadox Perspective,” Journal of Management Inquiry, 17: 288-304.

    18.Chen, Ming-Jer and Danny Miller. 2012. “Competitive Dynamics: Themes, Trends, and Theoretical Thrusts,” Academy of Management Annals, 6 (1): 1-76.

    參、網路資料
    1.PACER: https://www.pacer.gov/
    2.USPTO: http://www.uspto.gov/patent
    3.DOJ: https://www.justice.gov/
    4.Businessinsider: http://www.businessinsider.com/
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理與智慧財產研究所
    101361016
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1013610161
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理與智慧財產研究所] 學位論文

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