學校教育在個人取得組織所提供的在職訓練的過程中是一個重要的因素。教育程度高的工作者被挑選進入有提供職訓的組織之機會較高，因而教育具有人力資本和信號的功能。但在有提供在職訓練的組織，有接受過和未接受過組織職訓者之間的教育程度並未如先前研究所發現的有明顯的差異。本文認為研究者可能忽視了「組織是否有提供在職訓練」具有內生變項的特質，因而高估了教育的影響作用。從教育和組織在職訓練的關係，我們的研究顯示台灣具有競賽型社會的特質。教育上的劣勢者很難取得公司正式的在職訓練資源，而輸在起跑點上的後果即是喪失下一場競賽的參賽資格。 Schooling is an important factor for workers to acquire organization-based job training. An individual with better education has more opportunities being hired by companies that provide on-the-job training, thus education has human capital as well as signaling functions. However, our study shows that, in those companies that provide on-the-job training, there is no significant difference in schooling between those who have and those who have not received on-the-job training, which is different from the findings of previous studies. Our findings indicate that previous researchers might have overlooked the endogenous variable that whether a company provides on-the-job training or not. Thus they might have overestimated the impact of workers’ education in the process of acquisition of organization-based training. According to the findings of the relationship between education and on-the-job training, this study provides evidence that Taiwan’s labor market has the attribute of competitiveness. Workers who are disadvantaged in education tend to have difficulty in acquiring organization-based job training, and thus are not eligible for the next round of competition in the workplace.