長久以來，學界對於儒學中惡的理論注目較少，而僅有的討論亦大多只重點落在明末儒者劉蕺山的《人譜》之中。然而，若學者只注意蕺山這個討論「點」，則或會誤以為蕺山的惡論在儒學傳統中是獨樹一幟的孤例，甚或誤以為儒學過份樂觀地忽視了對於惡的問題的照察。本文撰寫的目的便是從哲學史的向度溯源拉出蕺山惡論的理論「線」索。筆者將會嘗試論證：一、陽明與蕺山共同持守「理」「氣」在「本原」狀態同一是善的觀點，而惡的出現只能訴諸本心的「流失」狀態而言。二、蕺山在「惡的源起」與「治惡工夫」的議題上，皆有推進陽明之學處。本文希望能夠豐富學界對於蕺山（乃至儒學傳統）惡論的理解，並幫助學界重新思考儒學傳統中的理氣、理欲、善惡關係。 The theory of evil in Confucian tradition is rarely discussed in the past. Among the rare discussion, Renpu (Schemata of Humanity) by Late Ming scholar Liu Jishan could be regarded as the main focal point. In this case, some may misunderstand that theory of evil by Liu is an exceptional example in Confucianism, even misunderstand that the problem of evil is over-optimistically neglected by Confucian thinkers. The primary purposes of this paper are to point out: First, both Wang Yangming and Liu Jishan hold the standpoint that li and qi are good in its origin, and the occurrence of evil could only be attributed to its corruptive outflow. Second, regarding the issue of “the origin of evil” and “the method of conquering evil”, Liu has carried forward the discussion by Wang. By so doing, the aims of this paper are to enrich our understanding of the theory of evil in Liu Jishan’s (even Confucian) philosophy, also to help us reconsidering the relationship between li-qi, li-yu, shan-e.
政治大學哲學學報, 33, 149-192 The national Chengchi university philosophical