本文以語法化(Grammaticalization)理論來對漢語條件句標記「要是」和「要不是」進行對比分析。漢語條件句標記「要是」和「要不是」看似反義，但使用上並不對稱。本文採用共時的語料考察，就兩者語意語用上的功能、語法化的過程、及主觀化和交互主觀化的程度進行探討。本文發現，兩者語法化現象的發展不同，兩者主觀性及交互主觀性也有所不同。而此差異不只造成兩者在條件句上的出現頻率的不同，兩者在篇章中的語用功能也不相同。 This study explores Mandarin Chinese yaoshi and yaobushi constructions in both spoken and written discourse from the perspective of grammaticalization. Although the conditional markers yaoshi and yaobuhsi seem antonymous, there are some asymmetries between them in conditional constructions. Adopting a synchronic approach, this study discusses the semantic-pragmatic uses of yaoshi and yaobushi. In addition, we also show their semantic development from the propositional domain, to the textual domain, and from there to the expressive domain, viz. a semantic development whereby the meanings of the lexical items change from less to more situated in the speaker’s mental belief and attitude. By investigating the development of yaoshi and yaobushi, we can describe more accurately their various usages in contemporary Chinese and explain the asymmetries between their uses in conditionals. It is concluded in this study that the differences in their grammaticalization, subjectification and intersubjectification included, influence not only their occurrences in conditionals but also their pragmatic functions in discourse.
臺灣語言學期刊, 13(2), 31-77 Taiwan Journal of Linguistics